Wednesday, 29 July 2015

What a can of Coca-Cola REALLY does to your body

Saturday, 11 July 2015

St.Petersburg - History & Places to visit

1611 - Swedes build a fortress Nyenskans (Nyenschantz) at the mouth of the Neva river in Swedish Ingria (Ingermanland) on the site of the present day St. Petersburg (Nyen = Neva, skans = bastion). A small town called Nyen grows up around it.

1642 - Nyen is granted town privileges and becomes the administrative centre of Swedish Ingria

1656 - Russian attack badly damaged the town, and the administrative centre was moved to Narva

1682/05/07 - Peter I (Peter the Great) becomes tsar

1700 -  The Great Northern War started when an alliance of Denmark–Norway, Saxony and Russia declared war on the Swedish Empire

1702 - Nyen was burned down in order not to become a threat to the fortress in the event of a Russian invasion.

1703/05/01 -  the fortress of Nyenskans was taken by Peter the Great and renamed Schlotburg (Shlotburg, Sloteburg)

1703/05/12 - Peter the Great captured Nyenskans, and soon replaced the fortress

1703/05/27 - on Zayachy (Hare) Island, Peter the Great laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city

1710 Menshikov Palace founded.  It was the first stone building in the city. Alexander Menshikov was Saint Petersburg Governor General. The city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia; a number of Swedish prisoners of war were also involved in some years under supervision of Alexander Menshikov

1710 - Summer Palace construction commenced

1712 - Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg

1712 - Construction of Peter and Paul Cathedral started. It would be the first church in the city to be built of stone.

1714 -  Summer Palace completed
1714 - Peter I began construction of the Monplaisir Palace in Peterhof

1715-16 - Anichkov Bridge being built. It is the first and most famous bridge across the Fontanka River. Nevsky Prospect today passes over it. Until the mid-18th century, the Fontanka River was considered the southern boundary of St. Petersburg.

1716 - During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress but by this year Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals. The project was not completed.

1716 - Peter the Great appointed Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg.

1719 - Start of building of Kunstkamera - the first museum in Russia, established by Peter the Great.

1721//11/02 - Peter I (Peter the Great) becomes an imperator

1721 - Treaty of Nystad ends The Great Northern War

1721 - from;  Peter and Paul fortress houses part of the city's garrison and also serves as a high security political jail;  among the first inmates was Peter's own rebellious son Alexei

1725/02/08 - Peter the Great dies

1725/02/08 – 17 May 1727 - Yekaterina I Alekseyevna (the second wife of Peter I) rules

1727 - Menshikov with his family was exiled to Siberia and his property was confiscated

1727 - Kunstkamera completed.

1727/05/18Pyotr II Alekseyevich becomes a ruler

1729/05/02 - Yekaterina II (Yekaterina Alexeyevna, Yekaterina  the Great) born

1730/01/30 - Pyotr II Alekseyevich dies

1730 - Anna Ioannovna (Anna Ivanovna Romanova) becomes a ruler

1731 -  Cadet Corps were established and occupied Menshikov Palace and neighboring buildings

1740 - Peter and Paul Fortress building completed

1740/10/28 - Anna of Russia dies

28 October 1740 – 6 December 1741 - Ivan VI Antonovich rules.

1741 - Elizabeth of Russia (Elizaveta Petrovna;  daughter of Peter the Great/Peter I) becomes a ruler

1745 - 1755 - Elizabeth adds wings to Grand Palace in Peterhof

1754 - Anichkov Palace finished. It was designed for the Empress Elizabeth of Russia (Elizaveta Petrovna).

1762/01/05 - Elizabeth of Russia dies.

5 January 1762 – 9 July 1762 - Peter III (Pyotr III Fyodorovich) rules.

1762/07/09Yekaterina the Great becomes a ruler

1782 The Bronze Horseman statue (The equestrian statue of Peter the Great ) finished

1783 - The Imperial drama, opera and ballet troupe in Saint Petersburg was established

1796/11/17 - Yekaterina II dies

1796//11/17 - Paul I becomes ruler

1801/03/23 - Paul I dies

1801/03/23 -  Alexander I (Aleksandr Pavlovich) becomes ruler

1812 - Napoleon's invasion of Russia

1825/12/01 - Alexander I died. Presumed heir was Alexander's brother Constantine who made his renunciation and Nicholai stepped forward to assume the throne.

1825 - Nicholai I Pavlovich Romanov becomes a ruler

1825/12/26 - Decembrist revolution took place in the Senate Square: army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession.

1825-1826 - Egyptian Bridge (over Fontanka) constructed.

1832 -  Two ancient sphinxes brought from Egypt (via France) and placed at the quay at Universitetskaya Embankment which got name Quay with Sphinxes.

1833 - Pushkin writes poem "The Bronze Horseman"

1841-42 - Anichkov Bridge re-built.

1849–50 - The Horse Tamers - four famous horse sculptures erected on the Anichkov Bridge.

1855/03/02 - Nicholai I Pavlovich Romanov dies

1855/03/02Aleksandr II Nikolaevich becomes a ruler

1860 - Mariinsky Theatre opened.

1861 - serfdom (slavery) abolished in Russia

1868/05/18 –  Nikolay II Romanov born

1881/03/13 - Aleksandr II Nikolaevich dies

1881/03/13 - Alexander III (Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov) becomes a ruler

1894/11/01 - Alexander III dies

1894/11/01 - Nikolay II Romanov's rule starts. He would be the last Russian tsar.

early 20th century -  Peter and Paul Fortress was still used as a prison by the tsarist government

1910 - Construction of The Saint Petersburg Mosque begins.

1913 - The Saint Petersburg Mosque opened. At that time it was the largest mosque in Europe outside Turkey.

1917/03/15 - Nikolay II Romanov forcibly abdicates.

1918/07/17 - Nikolay II Romanov

1921 - The Saint Petersburg Mosque completed. Is is patterned after Gur-e Amir, the tomb of Tamerlane in Samarkand

1938 - Museum of History and Development of Leningrad founded in Peter and Paul Fortress

1940 - The Saint Petersburg Mosque closed. Soviet authorities banned services and turned the building into a medical equipment storehouse. During the Second World War St. Petersburg Mosque was closed and was made into a warehouse.

1955 - Museum of Leningrad History founded

1956 - At the request of the first Indonesian President, Soekarno, ten days after his visit to the city, the mosque was returned to the Muslim Religious community of St. Petersburg. The Saint Petersburg Mosque reopened.

1956-1981 - the Menshikov Palace was restored again and finally opened to the public as a branch of the Hermitage Museum

1991 - Museum of Leningrad History renamed to The State Museum of the History of St. Petersburg